Computers

Computer Architecture


64 bit processors: history and rationale (John R. Mashey)
AMD64 (Linus Torvalds; Terje Mathisen)
Asynchronous logic (Mitch Alsup)
Atomic transactions (Mitch Alsup; Terje Mathisen)
Caches (John R. Mashey; John D. McCalpin)
Cache thrashing (Andy Glew; Linus Torvalds; Terje Mathisen)
CMOS logic speeds (Mitch Alsup)
CMOV (Terje Mathisen)
CPU power usage (Mitch Alsup)
DRAM cache (Mitch Alsup; Terje Mathisen)
DRAM latencies (Mitch Alsup)
Floating-point exception fixup (John Mashey; Terje Mathisen)
Fault tolerant (John R. Mashey)
H264 CABAC (Maynard Handley; Terje Mathisen)
IBM 801 (Greg Pfister)
Why the IBM PC used the 8088 (Bill Katz; John R. Mashey)
Interval arithmetic (James B. Shearer)
Lisp support (Eliot Miranda; John Mashey)
LL/SC (John Mashey; Terje Mathisen)
MIPS exceptions (John Mashey)
Misalignment (John Levine; Mitch Alsup; Terje Mathisen)
Opteron STREAM benchmark optimizations (Terje Mathisen)
Page size (Linus Torvalds)
The Pentium 4 (Linus Torvalds; Terje Mathisen)
PowerPC page tables (Greg Pfister; Linus Torvalds)
Prefetch (Terje Mathisen)
Quad precision (Robert Corbett)
Register file size (Mitch Alsup)
REP MOVS (Terje Mathisen)
Result forwarding (Terje Mathisen)
ROM speeds (Mitch Alsup)
Signed division (Robert Corbett)
Software pipelining (Linus Torvalds)
Software-refilled TLBs (John R. Mashey, John F Carr)
SpecFP2000 (Greg Lindahl; John D. McCalpin; Wesley Jones)
SpecFP bandwidth (John D. McCalpin)
SpecFP and time-skewing optimizations (Greg Lindahl; John D. McCalpin)
The Tera multithreaded architecture (Preston Briggs, John R. Mashey)
TLBs (John Mashey)
Transmission gates (Mitch Alsup)
The VAX (John Mashey)
Vectored interrupts (John Mashey)
Wiz (John Mashey)

Programming Languages


Aliasing (Terje Mathisen)
Alloca (Dennis Ritchie)
Bad C macros (Jamie Lokier)
Caching multidimensional arrays (Terje Mathisen)
Call by name (John R. Mashey; Dennis Ritchie; Robert Corbett; William B. Clodius)
Binary calling conventions (Chris Torek)
C (Dennis Ritchie; Douglas A. Gwyn; John A. Gregor, Jr.; Linus Torvalds)
C "extern" (Dennis Ritchie)
C prototypes (Chris Torek)
C shifts (Dennis Ritchie)
The C99 preprocessor (Al Viro)
C's == operator (Linus Torvalds)
COBOL (Henry Spencer; Morten Reistad; Terje Mathisen)
Compiler optimizations (Andy Glew; Greg Lindahl; Linus Torvalds; Terje Mathisen)
COME FROM (Robert Corbett)
The "const" qualifier in C (Chris Torek; Linus Torvalds)
Contravariance (Henry Spencer)
Cray integers (Dennis Ritchie)
Debuggers (Douglas A. Gwyn)
Decimal FP (Glen Herrmannsfeldt; Mitch Alsup; Terje Mathisen; Wilco Dijkstra; hack@watson.ibm.com)
Denormals (Terje Mathisen)
Dereferencing null (John R. Mashey)
empty_statement macro (Linus Torvalds)
Fortran operator precedence weirdness (Robert Corbett)
F2K allocatable (Jos R Bergervoet; Richard Maine)
F2K optional arguments (Robert Corbett)
F90 arrays (James Van Buskirk; Richard Maine; Robert Corbett)
F90 (Richard Maine)
F95 (Robert Corbett)
Fast division (Terje Mathisen)
Floor function (Chris Torek)
Fortran ABI (Robert Corbett)
Fortran aliasing (James Van Buskirk; Jos Bergervoet; Richard Maine; Robert Corbett)
Fortran carriage control (Richard Maine)
Fortran extensions (Robert Corbett)
Fortran functions (Robert Corbett)
Fortran intent (Richard Maine; Robert Corbett)
Fortran parse (Robert Corbett)
Fortran pointers (Robert Corbett)
Fortran real*8 (Richard Maine; Robert Corbett)
Fortran standard (Charles Russell; Robert Corbett)
Fortran tabs (Robert Corbett)
The GPL and linking (Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Handwritten parse tables (David R Tribble; Dennis Ritchie)
Integer lexing (Henry Spencer)
Java bytecode verification (David Chase)
Latency (John Mashey; Terje Mathisen)
LL parsing (Henry Spencer)
Logical XOR (Dennis Ritchie)
longjmp() (Dennis Ritchie; Larry Jones)
malloc() (Chris Torek; David Chase)
Matrix multiplication (James B. Shearer)
Parsers (Henry Spencer)
Pl/I (John R. Levine)
Polyglot program (Peter Lisle)
Power-of-two detection (Bruce Hoult; John D. McCalpin)
Sequence points (Dennis Ritchie)
String literals (Dennis Ritchie; Douglas A. Gwyn)
strtok (Chris Torek)
Struct return (Chris Torek)
Stupid pointer tricks (David E. Wallace)
The C "volatile" qualifier (John R. Mashey; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)

The Computer Business; Miscellaneous


Danish (Terje Mathisen)
English (Henry Spencer)
Evolution (Linus Torvalds; Larry McVoy)
The Gulf Stream (Norman Yarvin)
Highways (John F. Carr)
Hospitals (del cecchi)
MIPS prospects (old) (John R. Mashey)
Mimeograph (Dennis Ritchie)
Norway (Terje Mathisen)
Oceanography (John D. McCalpin)
Patents (John R. Mashey)
SGI Cray acquisition (John R. Mashey; John D. McCalpin)

Hardware


Bad blocks (Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Copper chip wires (Mitch Alsup)
Ethernet crossover cables (H. Peter Anvin)
Optical fiber (Morten Reistad; Terje Mathisen)

Operating Systems


BSD (Dennis Ritchie)
Deadlock (John Mashey)
EIO (Douglas A. Gwyn)
Ethernet checksums (Jonathan Stone; Linus Torvalds; Terje Mathisen)
Large pages (John Mashey)
Microkernels (Linus Torvalds)
Memory mapping (John R. Mashey; Linus Torvalds)
Real time systems (John R. Mashey)
Sandboxes (Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Unix command names (Henry Spencer)
64-bit divide (Jamie Lokier; Linus Torvalds)
ABI documentation (Linus Torvalds)
ACCESS_ONCE (Linus Torvalds)
ACKs (Linus Torvalds)
ACPI (Linus Torvalds)
Address zero (Linus Torvalds)
Antivirus software (Al Viro; Theodore Tso)
Assert (Linus Torvalds)
Asynchronous resume (Linus Torvalds)
Bayes spam filters (Linus Torvalds)
Benchmarks (Linus Torvalds)
Binary modules (Theodore Ts'o)
Bind mounts (Al Viro)
Dealing with the BIOS (Linus Torvalds)
BIOS boot order (H. Peter Anvin)
Bitfields (Linus Torvalds; Al Viro)
Block device error handling (Theodore Ts'o)
Block layer (Linus Torvalds)
Bool (H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds)
Branch hints (Linus Torvalds)
Buffer heads (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
BUG() (Linus Torvalds)
Bug tracking (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Build log diffs (Al Viro)
Bundling (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
Bytes-left-in-page macro (Linus Torvalds)
Cache coloring (Linus Torvalds)
Cache games (Linus Torvalds)
Caches and read-ahead (Daniel Phillips; H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds)
Callback type safety (Al Viro)
Case insensitive filenames (H. Peter Anvin; Ingo Molnar; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o; Al Viro)
C++ (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o)
C support for concurrency (Linus Torvalds)
Checkpointing (Linus Torvalds)
Child-runs-first (Linus Torvalds)
chroot (Al Viro; Theodore Tso)
CLI/STI (Linus Torvalds)
close()'s return value (Linus Torvalds)
CMOV (Linus Torvalds)
cmpxchg, LL/SC, and portability (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
Code complexity (Linus Torvalds)
Code size (Linus Torvalds)
Coding style (Al Viro; Larry McVoy; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Collective work copyright (Linus Torvalds)
Commit messages (Linus Torvalds)
Compatibility (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o)
Compatibility wrappers (Linus Torvalds)
Compiler barriers (Linus Torvalds)
Conditional assignments (Linus Torvalds)
CONFIG_LOCALVERSION_AUTO (Linus Torvalds)
CONFIG_PM_TRACE (Linus Torvalds)
Constant expressions (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
CPU reliability (Linus Torvalds)
Crash dumps (Linus Torvalds)
dd_rescue (Theodore Tso)
Deadlock (Greg KH; Linus Torvalds; Al Viro)
Debuggers (Al Viro; Larry McVoy; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Development speed (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
devfs (Al Viro; Theodore Ts'o)
Device numbers (H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o; Al Viro)
Device probing (Linus Torvalds)
/dev permissions (Linus Torvalds)
/dev/random (H. Peter Anvin; Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Dirty limits (Linus Torvalds)
disable_irq races (Linus Torvalds; Al Viro)
Disk corruption (Theodore Ts'o;)
Disk snapshots (Theodore Tso)
Documentation (Linus Torvalds)
DRAM power savings (Linus Torvalds)
Drive caches (Linus Torvalds)
DRM (Linus Torvalds)
Dual license BSD/GPL (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
dump (Linus Torvalds)
e2image (Theodore Ts'o)
Edge-triggered interrupts (Linus Torvalds)
EFI (Linus Torvalds)
Empty function calls' cost (Linus Torvalds)
errno (Linus Torvalds)
Error jumps (Linus Torvalds)
Event queues (Linus Torvalds)
The everything-is-a-file principle (Linus Torvalds)
Execute-only (Linus Torvalds)
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL (Linus Torvalds)
Extreme system recovery (Al Viro)
Fairness (Ingo Molnar; Linus Torvalds; Ulrich Drepper)
File hole caching (Linus Torvalds)
Files as directories (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o; Al Viro)
Filesystem compatibility (Theodore Tso)
Flash card errors (H. Peter Anvin; Theodore Tso)
Fork race (Linus Torvalds)
Saving the floating-point state (Linus Torvalds)
Fragmentation avoidance (Linus Torvalds)
The framebuffer code (Linus Torvalds)
Frequency scaling (Linus Torvalds)
Function pointers (Linus Torvalds)
gcc assembly (Linus Torvalds)
gcc attributes (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
gcc (Al Viro; H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Y. Ts'o)
gcc "inline" (H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
gcc and kernel stability (Linus Torvalds)
Generic mechanisms (Linus Torvalds)
getpid() caching (Linus Torvalds)
get_unaligned() (Linus Torvalds)
git basic usage (Linus Torvalds)
git bisect (Linus Torvalds)
git branches (Linus Torvalds)
git btrfs history (Linus Torvalds)
git (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o)
Git merges from upstream (Linus Torvalds)
git rebase (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Global variables (Theodore Tso)
The GPL3 (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
The GPL (Al Viro; Larry McVoy; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o)
The GPL and modules (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o; Al Viro)
Hardware glitches (Linus Torvalds)
Hibernation (Linus Torvalds)
Highmem (H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds)
Hurd (Larry McVoy; Theodore Ts'o)
HZ (Linus Torvalds)
ifdefs (Linus Torvalds)
in_interrupt() (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Initramfs (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
Inline assembly (H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds)
Inlining functions (Linus Torvalds)
Innovation (Al Viro)
Integer types in the kernel (Linus Torvalds; Al Viro)
ioctl() (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
I/O space accesses (Linus Torvalds)
IRQ routing (Linus Torvalds)
Journaling filesystems (Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Kernel configuration (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Kernel deadlock debugging (Linus Torvalds)
Kernel dumps (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Kernel floating-point (Linus Torvalds)
Kernel headers (Al Viro; H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds)
The kernel's role (Linus Torvalds)
kinit (Al Viro; H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Large pages (Linus Torvalds)
Latency (Linus Torvalds)
libgcc (Linus Torvalds)
Light-weight processes (David S. Miller; Larry McVoy; Zack Weinberg)
The Linux trademark (Linus Torvalds)
Lists (Linus Torvalds)
Lock costs (Linus Torvalds)
Locking (Linus Torvalds)
Lock ordering (Linus Torvalds)
Log structured filesystems (Theodore Tso)
Log timestamp ordering (Linus Torvalds)
Lookup tables (Linus Torvalds)
lost+found (Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Maintainers (Linus Torvalds)
malloc(0) (Linus Torvalds)
MAP_COPY (Linus Torvalds)
Massive cross-builds (Al Viro)
memcpy (Linus Torvalds)
Memory barriers (Linus Torvalds)
Memory pressure code (Linus Torvalds)
The merge window (Linus Torvalds)
Micro-optimizations (Linus Torvalds)
minixfs (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
mmap() portability (Linus Torvalds)
MODVERSIONS (Linus Torvalds)
More evil than... (Larry McVoy)
Mounts (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
mtime changes with mmap() (Linus Torvalds)
MTU discovery (Theodore Y. Ts'o)
Multiple includes (Linus Torvalds)
must_check (Linus Torvalds)
Negative dentries (Linus Torvalds)
Network filesystems (Al Viro)
NFS (Linus Torvalds)
NO_IRQ (Linus Torvalds)
NOP (Linus Torvalds)
O_DIRECT (Larry McVoy; Linus Torvalds)
Oops decoding (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
-Os (Linus Torvalds)
The page cache (Linus Torvalds)
Page coloring (Larry McVoy; Linus Torvalds)
Page sizes (Linus Torvalds)
Page tables (Linus Torvalds; Paul Mackerras)
Page zeroing strategy (Linus Torvalds)
Partial reads and writes (Larry McVoy; Linus Torvalds)
Patches (Al Viro; Kirill Korotaev; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Patch tracking (Linus Torvalds)
Patents (Al Viro; Larry McVoy; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
PC clocks (H. Peter Anvin)
The penguin logo (Linus Torvalds)
Using pipes to send a packet stream (Linus Torvalds)
pivot_root() (Linus Torvalds)
I/O plugging (Jens Axboe; Linus Torvalds)
Pointer overlap (Linus Torvalds)
Pointer subtraction (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
Point-to-point links (Linus Torvalds)
POP instruction speed (Jeff Garzik; Linus Torvalds)
Priority inheritance (Linus Torvalds)
Process wakeup (Linus Torvalds)
/proc/self/fd (Theodore Tso)
ptrace and mmap (Linus Torvalds)
ptrace() self-attach (Linus Torvalds)
ptrace() and signals (Linus Torvalds)
put_user() (Linus Torvalds)
Quirks (Linus Torvalds)
RAID0 (Linus Torvalds)
Readahead (Linus Torvalds)
readdir() nonatomicity (Theodore Ts'o)
Recursive locks (Linus Torvalds)
Reference counting (Linus Torvalds)
Regression tracking (Linus Torvalds)
Reiser4 (Christoph Hellwig; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o; Al Viro)
Resource forks (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Y. Ts'o)
C99's 'restrict' keyword (Linus Torvalds)
Revision-control filesystem (Linus Torvalds)
RTLinux (Linus Torvalds)
rwlocks (Linus Torvalds)
The scheduler (Linus Torvalds)
SCSI ids (Linus Torvalds)
The SCSI layer (Theodore Tso)
Security bugs (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Security mailing lists (Alan Cox; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o)
Security (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
select() (Linus Torvalds)
SELinux (Al Viro; Ingo Molnar; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Semaphores (Linus Torvalds)
sendfile() (Linus Torvalds)
The serial port driver (Theodore Tso)
32-bit shifts (Linus Torvalds)
Signal-safe (Linus Torvalds)
Signals and system call restarting (Theodore Y. Ts'o)
signal_struct (Linus Torvalds)
Signed divisions (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
Signed pointers (Linus Torvalds)
Signed<->unsigned casts (Linus Torvalds)
The slab allocator (Linus Torvalds)
Small static binaries (Ulrich Drepper; Zack Weinberg)
SMP costs (Linus Torvalds)
socklen_t (Linus Torvalds)
Soft Update filesystems (Theodore Ts'o)
Software prefetching from memory (Linus Torvalds)
Software quality (Al Viro)
Sparse (Linus Torvalds; Al Viro)
Specs (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o)
Spinlocks (Ingo Molnar; Linus Torvalds; Paul E. McKenney)
splice() (Linus Torvalds)
Richard Stallman (Al Viro)
stat() sizes of pipes/sockets (Linus Torvalds)
CPU store buffers (Linus Torvalds)
strncpy() (Linus Torvalds)
Struct declarations (Linus Torvalds)
Struct initialization (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
Stupid mail clients (Linus Torvalds)
Sun (Linus Torvalds)
Suspend (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Tso)
Symbolic links and git (Linus Torvalds)
Symbol printing (Linus Torvalds)
Sysfs (Al Viro; Theodore Tso)
Syslog clogs (Linus Torvalds)
Hardware clock on localtime, and fsck (Martin Schwidefsky; Michal Schmidt; Theodore Tso)
Thread-synchronous signals (Linus Torvalds)
Timer wrapping-around in C (Johannes Stezenbach; Linus Torvalds)
TLAs (Linus Torvalds)
Tool bundling (Al Viro; Linus Torvalds)
Triple faults (Linus Torvalds)
TSC (Linus Torvalds)
tty access times (Linus Torvalds)
Tuning parameters (Linus Torvalds)
TXT (Theodore Tso)
Typedefs (Linus Torvalds)
Unsigned arithmetic (Linus Torvalds)
User / kernel splits (Linus Torvalds)
User pointers (Linus Torvalds)
User-space filesystems (Linus Torvalds)
User-space I/O (Linus Torvalds)
UTF-8 (H. Peter Anvin; Jamie Lokier; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o; Al Viro)
utrace (Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o)
Vendor-driven (Linus Torvalds)
vmalloc() (Jens Axboe; Linus Torvalds; Theodore Ts'o)
VMAs (Linus Torvalds)
vm_dirty_ratio (Linus Torvalds)
Wakekill (Linus Torvalds)
work_on_cpu() (Linus Torvalds)
Write barriers (Linus Torvalds)
Write combining (Linus Torvalds)
write() error return (Linus Torvalds)
x86-64 (Linus Torvalds)
x86 rings (H. Peter Anvin; Linus Torvalds)
The x86 TLB (Linus Torvalds)
x86 versus other architectures (Linus Torvalds)
Xen (Linus Torvalds)
XFS (Al Viro)
Zero-copy (Linus Torvalds)
ZERO_PAGE (Linus Torvalds)
Zero as a special value (Linus Torvalds)
ZFS (Theodore Tso)

Environment


Aerosols (Robert Grumbine)
Arsenic (David Gossman)
Bt (David Kendra; Marty Sachs; Tracy Aquilla)
The car patent (Bruce Hamilton)
Cloning (Tracy Aquilla)
Fenpropimorph (Harold Lindaberry; Oz; Torsten Brinch)
Fertilizer (Oz)
Long Term Capital Management (James B. Shearer)
Ocean CO2 (Paul D. Farrar)
Parasites (Oz)
Pesticides (Oz; Torsten Brinch; Tracy Aquilla)
Poppy seeds (Jay Mann)
Radiosondes (Grant W. Petty)
River phosphates (Oz)
Sewage sludge (Oz)
Soil fauna (Oz)

Houses


The Delaney Clause (Tracy Aquilla)
EC seed rules (Oz)
Eggs (John De Armond; Tracy Aquilla)
Estrogenic (Oz)
Farming (Oz)
Food pathogens (John De Armond)
Glyphosate (Torsten Brinch)
Hares (Oz; Torsten Brinch)
Heavy metals (Oz)
Milk bacteria (Jim Webster; Oz; Torsten Brinch)
Organic food (Bruce Hamilton; Oz; Torsten Brinch; Tracy Aquilla; Victoria)
Tracy Aquilla (Tracy Aquilla)
Walnut cracking (Philip Duclos)
Wasps in NZ (Jay Mann)

Electrical, Electronic


Expensive photograph (Dave Platt)
Nonpolarized electrolytics (Dave Platt)
Op amp nulling (Dave Platt)