Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 07:09:12 -0500
From: Steve Bellovin <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: More on the new CERT advisory
[The CERT advisory is the previous item in this issue.
Also, see John Markoff's front-page story in yesterday's
editions of The New York Times, 23 Jan 1995. PGN]
There's a great deal of confusion about what kind of attack the recent CERT
advisory is referring to. Let me try to clear things up.
The specific attack is a sequence number guessing attack, originally
described by R.T. Morris in Bell Labs Computer Science Technical Report
#117, February 25, 1985. I generalized (and publicized) the attack in my
1989 paper ``Security Problems in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite'', Computer
Communications Review 19:2, April 1989, pp. 32-48 (URLs below). Both his
attack and my generalizations are special cases of a more general attack, IP
source address spoofing, in which the attacker illegitimately uses a trusted
machine's IP address in conjunction with some protocol (such as rsh) that
does address-based authentication.
In order to understand the particular case of sequence number guessing, you
have to look at the 3-way handshake used in the TCP open sequence. Suppose
client machine A wants to talk to rsh server B. It sends the following
A->B: SYN, ISSa
That is, it sends a packet with the SYN (``synchronize sequence
number'') bit set and an initial sequence number ISSa.
B replies with
B->A: SYN, ISSb, ACK(ISSa)
In addition to sending its own initial sequence number, it acknowledges A's.
Note that the actual numeric value ISSa must appear in the message.
A concludes the handshake by sending
The initial sequence numbers are intended to be more or less random. More
precisely, RFC 793 specifies that the 32-bit counter be incremented by 1 in
the low-order position about every 4 microseconds. Instead,
Berkeley-derived kernels increment it by 128 every second, and 64 for each
new connection. Thus, if you open a connection to a machine, you know to a
very high degree of confidence what sequence number it will use for its next
connection. And therein lies the attack.
The attacker X first opens a real connection to its target B -- say, to the
mail port or the TCP echo port. This gives ISSb. It then impersonates A
A->B: SYN, ISSx
B's response to X's original SYN (so to speak)
B->A: SYN, ISSb', ACK(ISSx)
goes to the legitimate A, about which more anon. X never sees that message
but can still send
using the predicted value for ISSb'. If the guess is right -- and usually
it will be -- B's rsh server thinks it has a legitimate connection with A,
when in fact X is sending the packets. X can't see the output from this
session, but it can execute commands as more or less any user -- and in that
case, the game is over and X has won.
There is a minor difficulty here. If A sees B's message, it will realize
that B is acknowledging something it never sent, and will send a RST packet
in response to tear down the connection. There are a variety of ways to
prevent this; the easiest is to wait until the real A is down (possibly as a
result of enemy action, of course).
There are several possible defenses. Most obvious is to take advantage of
topological knowledge: don't let packets purporting to be from a local
machine arrive on an outside interface. That works very well if you only
trust local machines. If trust is granted to outside machines (say, via
.rhosts files) and if the attacker can identify the patterns of trust (which
isn't that difficult), the topological solution won't work. In that case,
you have to block all protocols that use TCP and address-based
authentication. (UDP is a separate can of worms.)
Best of all, don't use address-based authentication; it's a disaster
waiting to happen. The only real solution is cryptographic
Firewalls based on tcpd have a special problem: address-based authentication
is their business. If you have a set of rules that grants special
permission to inside addresses, and you don't use a screening router as
well, you may be vulnerable. The question is this: can an attacker do
damage by just sending commands and not seeing any output? If the answer is
yes, you are vulnerable.
For further information, see the two papers cited above: